Climate change basics | US Environmental Protection Agency

Climate change basics |  US Environmental Protection Agency

clouds It can have warming and cooling effects on the climate. They cool the planet by reflecting sunlight during the day, and warm the planet by slowing the escape of heat into space (this is most noticeable at night, as cloudy nights are usually warmer than clear nights).

Climate change can lead to changes in cloud coverage, height and reflectivity. These changes can then either amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the original change. The net effect of these changes is likely to be an amplified or positive feedback, mainly due to an increase in the height of high clouds in the tropics, making them better able to trap heat, and a decrease in the coverage of lower-level clouds in the mid-latitudes, which reduces the amount The sunlight they reflect. The magnitude of this feedback is uncertain due to the complex nature of cloud/climate interactions.8


1 Vose, RS, DR Eastling, KE Kunkel, AN LeGrande & MF Wehne. (2017). Temperature changes in the United States. in: Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume 1 (Wuebbles, DJ, DW Fahey, KA Hibbard, DJ Dokken, BC Stewart & TK Maycock (eds.)). US Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, pp. 197–199. doi: 10.7930/J0N29V45

2 IPCC (2013). Climate change 2013: a physical science basis. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Stoker, T. F., D. Chen, J.-K. Platner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Bushong, A. Nowels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, P. M. Midgley (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, p. pp. 187-189. 201-208.

3 Hayhoe, K., D. J. Wiebles, D. R. Easterling, D. W. Fahey, S. Doherty, J. Kosen, W. Sweet, R. Voss, M. Winner. (2018). Our changing climate. in: Impacts, risks, and adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II (Reidmiller, DR, CW Avery, DR Eastling, KE Kunkel, KLM Lewis, TK Maycock & BC Stewart (eds.)). US Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, pp. 91–94. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH2

4 National Academy of Sciences. (2020). Climate change: evidence and causes: 2020 update. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, p. 5. doi: 10.17226/25733

Wubbels DJ, Fahey DW, Hibbard KA, DeAngelo P, Doherty S, Hayhoe K, Horton R, Kosen JB, Taylor BC, Wubbels AM, Weaver CB. (2017). Executive summary. in: Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume 1 (Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, & T. K. Maycock (eds.)). American Program for Global Change Research, Washington, DC, p. 14. doi: 10.7930/J0DJ5CTG

5 Webels, D. J., D. R. Easterling, K. Hayhoe, T. Knutson, R. E. Cobb, J. B. Cossin, K. Kunkle, Anne Legrande, C. Mears, W. V. Sweet, B. C. Taylor, R. S. Vose, and M. F. Weiner. (2017). Our global changing climate. in: Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume 1 (Weebles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. Hibbard, D. J. Duquesne, P. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock (eds.)). American Global Change Research Programme, Washington, DC, pp. 35-72. doi: 10.7930/J08S4N35

6 Mayer, J., D. Schindel, F.-M. Brion, W. Collins, J. Vogelstedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Roebuck, G. Stevens, T. Takemura, and H. Zhang. (2013). Human and natural radiation forcing. in: Climate change 2013: a physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Stoker, T. F., D. Chen, J.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Bushong, A. Nowels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, P. M. Midgley (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, p. 685.

7 Mayer, J., D. Schindel, F.-M. Brion, W. Collins, J. Vogelstedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarck, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Roebuck, G. Stevens, T. Takemura, and H. Zhang. (2013). Human and natural radiation forcing. in: Climate change 2013: a physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Stoker, T. F., D. Chen, J.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Bushong, A. Nowels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, P. M. Midgley (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, p. 685.

8 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate change 2013: a physical science basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Stoker, T. F., D. Chen, J.-K. Platner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Bushong, A. Nowels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, P. M. Midgley (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, p. 593.

(tags for translation)climate change

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